Sham El-Nessim is the most important national non-religious celebration in Egypt. It is celebrated by all social classes without exception. It is one of the oldest feasts dating back to ancient Egypt. It was mentioned on the walls of ancient Egyptian temples as one of the Pharaonic feasts, it retained its status and presence and continued to be linked to the climate cycle and the geographical nature of the Nile Valley. In the Pharaonic era, the day of its celebration was the first day of the Shammo season, the date of the start of spring. Despite the conversion of the official religion in Egypt to Christianity and Islam, the status of Sham El-Nessim has remained, due to its association with agricultural work, the river cycle and climate. Its date is determined (the twenty-fifth of the month of Baramhat) in the Coptic calendar. The celebration of Sham El-Nessim begins with procedures and rituals, and the first of these rituals is the celebration of palm sunday, in which most parts of Egypt, the wheat bride is formed and is called by several names such as “The Frick Bride”. it is usually hung on the walls and entrances of homes. On Tuesday, people believe that it is the best day for phlebotomy therapy. This is done by conditionality. Wednesday is a day called “Ayoub’s Wednesday”, and there is a legend circulated by that Ayoub, the “Prophet of God” bathed on this day, massaging his body with juniper plants – so he recovered from his long, severe illness, as a prevention of diseases, individuals still practice this ritual. Thursday is “Lentil Thursday” and lentils cooked on it, and some people prefer to eat two eggs to avoid swelling of the eyes in the coming year. Friday, during which women in some governorates of Upper Egypt seek treatment for infertility. In Saturday, in which people apply the eyeliner « Kohl » on their eyes,  believing that this protects eyes from diseases and gives them strength of vision over the next year. And on Sunday it is believed that putting an onion under the pillow on this day prevents the « Shamamah » from appearing throughout the year (it is a metaphysical being that roams around the sleeper and smells him). The most prominent aspect of the Sham El-Nessim celebration is the early outing before sunrise to the fields, gardens, and banks of the river. This was based on the Pharaonic belief. Then it became based on the popular belief of the importance of leaving early to enjoy the pure morning breezes and its beneficial effect on public health. Egyptians eat special foods from green plants. Like lettuce and green onions: as well as colored boiled eggs, and salted fish. In each of these foods, there is a symbolic sign of the renewal of life and has a positive impact on the renewal of human vital energy.

Essam Estaty, Sham El Nessiem- legends, history,habits and rituals, ministry of culture, Cairo,2012.
Abd El Hamied Hawwas, Articles in Folk culture, ministry of culture, Cairo, 2014