Olive trees in Lebanon are mainly located on the neighboring hills of the littoral zone between a few meters and 850 m above sea level. There are, however, miraculously preserved olive trees several thousand years old nestled at an altitude of more than 1200m, in Bchaleh in the caza of Batroun. According to a local legend, when Noah released the dove out of the boat again, it returned to him in the evening, holding in its beak an olive leaf that would have been picked in Bchaaleh and; Noah thus knew that the waters had subsided on the earth. This is reason why the olive trees of Bchaaleh are nicknamed “sisters of Noah”. Deir Mimas in the caza of Marjeyoun is an another village where very old olive trees are found. The existence of exceptional trees should not hide the fact that certain regions of Lebanon are famous for the importance of their olive production such as Koura, Akkar, Marjeyoun Hasbaya, Nabatieh…

Olive trees are planted most often in deep, alkaline soils in the North and in pebbly brown soils in the South. They are undemanding, it is generally planted in marginal lands and in poor soils where it would be difficult to adopt the planting of other species, which gives it a very special ecological value. Lebanese olive growing is based on many varieties of olive trees in Lebanon are commonly called Baladi. This nomination covers several varieties, the main ones being: Soury-Samkmaki – Airouni-Chami and Edlebis.

In terms of seedlings, farmers generally prefer trees that are at least 2-3 years old. Only one-year-old seedlings can, of course, be planted, but this will most likely delay the first harvest. Work begins with selecting and preparing the field and marking the locations where the seedlings will be planted.  Alternating planting between olive and fig seedlings protects the olives from insect attacks, figs attracting them.

The olive tree only produces one year out of two. It reaches its full maturity and optimum production between 35 and 150 years. Beyond that, it ages and its yields become random. It is generally men who plant and cultivate the olive trees.

For three consecutive months, the olive harvest season takes place between the Lebanese regions, from the coast to the top of the mountain. It starts from mid-September, to the end of November every year. Harvesting begins a week after the first rains fall due to the fruits being full of water and their greater loss of dissolved antioxidants in water.Thus, it becomes a date that everyone is waiting for to participate in it on the one hand, and to get its supplies from it on the other hand. It is like a feast in which all members of the family participate, from their elders who inherited the love of the land, even their little ones who move between the olive bushes, in addition to the establishment of many local and civil institutions.

Olive oil, natural and virtuous, serves multiple purposes: food, lighting, care, religious practices, hygiene (soap). Its trade began in the Bronze Age (from -3000 to -1100). The Phoenicians then the Athenians will hold the monopoly of the trade, they will propagate the culture of the olive tree and the olive growing on all the Mediterranean circumference.