Marqouq bread is a pancake 50 to 65 cm in diameter, very thin (0,5 à 2 mm), almost translucent. It is prepared from bread dough in the Lebanese tradition on a saj, a heated metal dome. The saj is still found in villages in Lebanon, women cook their bread on a saj over a wood fire. However, there are several models, most often electric or gas.

Marqouq dough is made up of yeast or sourdough, half white flour and half wheat flour, water and sometimes of salt. It is prepared the day before. Before starting to make the bread early in the morning, the dough is divided into patons of the same size covered with corn flour so as not to stick to each other. The making of the markouk can then begin.

Tradionnally, making markouk bread is a women’s business. But this does not prevent certain men from participating either by fueling the fire or participating in the making. It is also not uncommon to see men in small neighborhood bakeries making them to sell. Once ready, they are then folded and stuffed into nylon bags.

women place the paton are placed one by one on a stool with a wide surface, the “tabliyyé”. They lower it then widens it with her fingers, turning it in circles. From time to time, They quickly fold in corn flour to prevent the dough from sticking to the fingers. When the dough reaches a satisfactory size, they pass the dough from one arm to the other hall. A rotating movement allows them to spread it evenly. After the “hall”, the dough is stretched one last time on a round cushion, more or less flattened, called “kâra”, to give it an even shape and allow placing it on the saj. Cooking only takes a few minutes. The bread or rghif is quickly removed from the saj when it begins to brown, avoiding tearing it. It is piled on the pile of already ready breads. The fineness of the dough placed on the saj means its prompt and complete drying and, therefore, both a disadvantage and an advantage. The markouk bread dries very quickly. But once hardened, the leaf keeps perfectly for almost fifteen days layered on top of each other, protected by cloth, which can be moistened from time to time.

Like Arab bread, markouk is used as a spoon for eating. Like Arab bread, the markouk serves as a spoon for eating. Folded with the fingers in the form of a cone, it allows you to grasp food without getting dirty. It also used as a base for sandwiches.

Kanafani Zahar Aïda, “Qualité et esthétique du pain rural libanais », Journal d'agriculture traditionnelle et de botanique appliquée, Année 1995 37-1, pp. 201-215.