Arabic calligraphy is a model of the organic relationship between the intangible cultural heritage, nature and culture, so it turned from being a carrier of culture to being a complete culture. Arabic Calligraphy is the art of writing arabic letters fwhich are written from right to left. Localy it is based on natural materials from the environment, where it is used for writing as a feather from the “reed” plant, craftsman (calligrapher) and sometimes the merchants collect and refine them with different scales to turn into a writing tool indispensable to the calligrapher, even with the emergence of modern pens. Some calligraphers used bird feathers as a pen for writing, and the craftsman also devised ways to process the papers to make them capable of artistic writing with special inks and the varying sizes he desires. This process is called “paper crushing. Paper, calligraphers believe that writing on subdued paper proves longer periods than writing on ready-made papers giving a higher value to the written board, and that one of the advantages of writing in Arabic calligraphy on subdued paper is that it can erase errors in writing and modify them, unlike glossy papers, paper subjugation gives a high value to manuscripts, and the value of ancient manuscripts is that they are written on natural oppressive paper and with fixed natural inks, calligrapher uses inks made from mostly natural materials such as arabic gum, walnut pebbles, rice and sometimes honey to add thickness and luster to the writing material. There is a heritage book with these natural components of the inks, mentioning the scales and measures that are added to manufacture each type. learning to write in Arabic calligraphy begins at early age starting from ten years, and the calligrapher is not required to know reading and writing, as Arabic calligraphy is treated as an art of drawing the letter, but some calligraphers are able to form and control letters despite not knowing the rules of the Arabic language. There are writings in Arabic calligraphy that use the letter only as a diacritic and they are called “Al-Haroufyin”, so the art of Arabic calligraphy among the native calligraphers in the villages is considered an automatic art that depends on the artist’s innate sense. He expresses that he feels that the letter is a living being.

Arabic calligraphy has many social and cultural functions, it is a main income resource for its craftsmen. In many celebrations such as celebrating the accomplishment of the pilgrim rituals by writing in houses walls welcoming him. Each “Sufi” religious group identify itself by a flag with certain color with Arabic calligraphy. In local communities Arabic calligraphy written in some ritual utensils.

Adel El Elossey, Arabic Calligraphy- its origin and development, El Dar El Arabia for book, Cairo, 2008.
Hashem Mohamed, Arabic Calligraphy rules, Alam El Kettab, Cairo, 1986.
Mahmoud Abass Hammouda, The development of calligraphic Arabic writing, Dar Nahdet el Sharq, Cairo, 2000.